In the 1980s, the Manitoba Government initiated an inquiry into the administration of justice and aboriginal people – commonly called the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry. In 1999 the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission (AJIC) was created to develop an action plan based on the recommendations of that Inquiry. This paper is an examination of aboriginal policing in Manitoba; it is one of a number of discussion papers contracted by the AIJC. The authors look at various issues facing police and the implications for aboriginal policing – for example, human resources, management, and roles and responsibilities of police. They also explore key principles and recommendations established by the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry regarding aboriginal policing. In those principles the Inquiry identified community-based policing as the favored strategy for policing in aboriginal areas.