By analyzing the legislation process of decentralization in Uganda, Dirk Beke aims in this chapter to contribute to legal anthropology in the field of public law in Africa. He conducts his analysis not through a discussion of formal legal procedures in Uganda, but through examination of the legislative process in its political and social environment, as well as through exploration of the impact of the new rules on Ugandan society and government. More specifically, Beke looks at the origin, objectives, recent evolution, and implementation of legislation concerning decentralization in Uganda. Decentralization is an important component of the wider policy reform that started in 1986 after more than twenty years of dictatorship and civil war. While Beke does deal with certain elements of traditional leadership in his analysis, he focuses on the political environment and the role of other local actors, such as non-governmental organizations and foreign donors.