Howard Zehr Changing Lenses 

To find our way out of this maze, we will have to look beyond alternative punishments, and even beyond alternatives to punishment. We will have to look to alternative ways of viewing both problem and solution.

The two contrasting lenses might be sketched like this:

Retributive justice: Crime is a violation of the state, defined by lawbreaking and guilt. Justice determines blame and administers pain in a contest between the offender and the state directed by systematic rules.

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